Theming is a systematic way of customizing the outlook of pages in a Web application. By applying a new theme, the overall appearance of a Web application can be changed instantly and dramatically.
In Yii, each theme is represented as a directory consisting of view files,
layout files, and relevant resource files such as images, CSS files,
themes reside under the same directory
WebRoot/themes. At any time, only
one theme can be active.
Tip: The default theme root directory
WebRoot/themescan be configured to be a different one. Simply configure the basePath and the baseUrl properties of the themeManager application component to be the desired ones.
To activate a theme, set the theme property of the Web application to be the name of the desired theme. This can be done either in the application configuration or during runtime in controller actions.
Note: Theme name is case-sensitive. If you attempt to activate a theme that does not exist,
Contents under a theme directory should be organized in the same way as
those under the application base
path. For example, all view files
must be located under
views, layout view files under
system view files under
views/system. For example, if we want to replace
create view of
PostController with a view in the
we should save the new view file as
For views belonging to controllers in a module,
the corresponding themed view files should also be placed under the
directory. For example, if the aforementioned
PostController is in a module
forum, we should save the
create view file as
WebRoot/themes/classic/views/forum/post/create.php. If the
is nested in another module named
support, then the view file should be
Note: Because the
viewsdirectory may contain security-sensitive data, it should be configured to prevent from being accessed by Web users.
When we call render or renderPartial to display a view, the corresponding view file as well as the layout file will be looked for in the currently active theme. And if found, those files will be rendered. Otherwise, it falls back to the default location as specified by viewPath and layoutPath.
Tip: Inside a theme view, we often need to link other theme resource files. For example, we may want to show an image file under the theme's
imagesdirectory. Using the baseUrl property of the currently active theme, we can generate the URL for the image as follows,Yii::app()->theme->baseUrl . '/images/FileName.gif'
Below is an example of directory organization for an application with two themes
WebRoot/ assets protected/ .htaccess components/ controllers/ models/ views/ layouts/ main.php site/ index.php themes/ basic/ views/ .htaccess layouts/ main.php site/ index.php fancy/ views/ .htaccess layouts/ main.php site/ index.php
In the application configuration, if we configure
return array( 'theme'=>'basic', ...... );
basic theme will be in effect, which means the application's layout will use
the one under the directory
themes/basic/views/layouts, and the site's index view will
use the one under
themes/basic/views/site. In case a view file is not found in the theme,
it will fall back to the one under the
Starting from version 1.1.5, views used by a widget can also be themed. In particular, when we call CWidget::render() to render a widget view, Yii will attempt to search under the theme folder as well as the widget view folder for the desired view file.
To theme the view
xyz for a widget whose class name is
Foo, we should first create a folder named
Foo (same as the widget class name) under the currently active theme's view folder. If the widget class is namespaced (available in PHP 5.3.0 or above), such as
\app\widgets\Foo, we should create a folder named
app_widgets_Foo. That is, we replace the namespace separators with the underscore characters.
We then create a view file named
xyz.php under the newly created folder. To this end, we should have a file
themes/basic/views/Foo/xyz.php, which will be used by the widget to replace its original view, if the currently active theme is
Note: this feature has been available since version 1.1.3.
When using a widget provided by third party or Yii, we often need to customize it for specific needs. For example, we may want to change the value of CLinkPager::maxButtonCount from 10 (default) to 5. We can accomplish this by passing the initial property values when calling CBaseController::widget to create a widget. However, it becomes troublesome to do so if we have to repeat the same customization in every place we use CLinkPager.
$this->widget('CLinkPager', array( 'pages'=>$pagination, 'maxButtonCount'=>5, 'cssFile'=>false, ));
Using the global widget customization feature, we only need to specify these initial values in a single place, i.e., the application configuration. This makes the customization of widgets more manageable.
To use the global widget customization feature, we need to configure the widgetFactory as follows:
return array( 'components'=>array( 'widgetFactory'=>array( 'widgets'=>array( 'CLinkPager'=>array( 'maxButtonCount'=>5, 'cssFile'=>false, ), 'CJuiDatePicker'=>array( 'language'=>'ru', ), ), ), ), );
In the above, we specify the global widget customization for both CLinkPager and CJuiDatePicker widgets by configuring the CWidgetFactory::widgets property. Note that the global customization for each widget is represented as a key-value pair in the array, where the key refers to the wiget class name while the value specifies the initial property value array.
Now, whenever we create a CLinkPager widget in a view, the above property values will be assigned to the widget, and we only need to write the following code in the view to create the widget:
$this->widget('CLinkPager', array( 'pages'=>$pagination, ));
We can still override the initial property values when necessary. For example,
if in some view we want to set
maxButtonCount to be 2, we can do the following:
$this->widget('CLinkPager', array( 'pages'=>$pagination, 'maxButtonCount'=>2, ));
While using a theme we can quickly change the outlook of views, we can use skins to systematically customize the outlook of the widgets used in the views.
A skin is an array of name-value pairs that can be used to initialize the properties of a widget. A skin belongs to a widget class, and a widget class can have multiple skins identified by their names. For example, we can have a skin for the CLinkPager widget and the skin is named as
In order to use the skin feature, we first need to modify the application configuration by configuring the CWidgetFactory::enableSkin property to be true for the
widgetFactory application component:
return array( 'components'=>array( 'widgetFactory'=>array( 'enableSkin'=>true, ), ), );
Please note that in versions prior to 1.1.3, you need to use the following configuration to enable widget skinning:
return array( 'components'=>array( 'widgetFactory'=>array( 'class'=>'CWidgetFactory', ), ), );
We then create the needed skins. Skins belonging to the same widget class are stored in a single PHP script file whose name is the widget class name. All these skin files are stored under
protected/views/skins, by default. If you want to change this to be a different directory, you may configure the
skinPath property of the
widgetFactory component. As an example, we may create under
protected/views/skins a file named
CLinkPager.php whose content is as follows,
return array( 'default'=>array( 'nextPageLabel'=>'next', 'prevPageLabel'=>'prev', ), 'classic'=>array( 'header'=>'', 'maxButtonCount'=>5, ), );
In the above, we create two skins for the CLinkPager widget:
classic. The former is the skin that will be applied to any CLinkPager widget that we do not explicitly specify its
skin property, while the latter is the skin to be applied to a CLinkPager widget whose
skin property is specified as
classic. For example, in the following view code, the first pager will use the
default skin while the second the
$this->widget('CLinkPager'); $this->widget('CLinkPager', array('skin'=>'classic'));
If we create a widget with a set of initial property values, they will take precedence and be merged with any applicable skin. For example, the following view code will create a pager whose initial values will be
array('header'=>'', 'maxButtonCount'=>6, 'cssFile'=>false), which is the result of merging the initial property values specified in the view and the
$this->widget('CLinkPager', array( 'skin'=>'classic', 'maxButtonCount'=>6, 'cssFile'=>false, ));
Note that the skin feature does NOT require using themes. However, when a theme is active, Yii will also look for skins under the
skins directory of the theme's view directory (e.g.
WebRoot/themes/classic/views/skins). In case a skin with the same name exists in both the theme and the main application view directories, the theme skin will take precedence.
If a widget is using a skin that does not exist, Yii will still create the widget as usual without any error.
Info: Using skin may degrade the performance because Yii needs to look for the skin file the first time a widget is being created.
Skin is very similar to the global widget customization feature. The main differences are as follows.
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