wunit Functional testing without Selenium


Functional testing without Selenium

Would you like to create functional tests in symfony2 style without Selenium? What could be easier! Just install `wunit` extension.

Note that `wunit based on some symfony2 classes and support all symfony2 testing features (of course, except for directly related to symfony2` core like profiling)


wUnit on GitHub

wUnit discussion on forum


  • PHP 5.3.x or higher
  • PHPUnit 3.6.x or higher
  • XDebug extension installed


1) Download and unpack source into protected/extensions/wunit folder.

2) Import wunit into test config (protected/config/test.php):

# protected/config/test.php
return array(
    'import' => array(
	'components' => array(
		'wunit' => array(
			'class' => 'WUnit'

3) Update protected/tests/bootstrap.php

Replace line ~~~ Yii::createWebApplication($config); ~~~ with

require(dirname(__FILE__) . '/../extensions/wunit/WUnit.php');

Finally you should get something like:



require(dirname(__FILE__) . '/../extensions/wunit/WUnit.php');

4) Replace protected/tests/phpunit.xml with:


NOTICE that `printerClass and printerFile` options are very important.

5*) To test file uploading you should use UploadedFile class instead of CUploadedFile. Here is example:

# protected/config/main.php
return array(
    'import' => array(

# protected/controllers/TestController.php
public function actionFormWithFile() {
	$form = new SomeForm();
	if (Yii::app()->request->getParam('FullForm')) {
		$form->attributes = Yii::app()->request->getParam('FullForm');
		$form->fileField = UploadedFile::getInstanceByName("FullForm[fileField]");
		if ($form->validate()) {

That's it. Now you can use create proper functional tests without Selenium :)

Your First Functional Test

Functional tests are simple PHP files that typically live in the `protected/tests/functional/ folder. If you would like to test the pages handled by your SiteController class, start by creating a new SiteControllerTest.php file that extends a special WUnitTestCase` class.

class SiteControllerTest extends WUnitTestCase
    public function testIndex()
        $client = static::createClient();

        $crawler = $client->request('GET', '/site/index');

        $this->assertTrue($crawler->filter('html:contains("Congratulations!")')->count() > 0);

The `createClient()` method returns a client, which is like a browser that you'll use to crawl your site:

$crawler = $client->request('GET', '/site/index');

The `request() method returns a Crawler` object which can be used to select elements in the Response, click on links, and submit forms.

The Crawler only works when the response is an XML or an HTML document. To get the raw content response, call $client->getResponse()->getContent().

Click on a link by first selecting it with the Crawler using either an XPath expression or a CSS selector, then use the Client to click on it. For example, the following code finds all links with the text `Great`, then selects the second one, and ultimately clicks on it:

$link = $crawler->filter('a:contains("Great")')->eq(0)->link();

$crawler = $client->click($link);

Submitting a form is quite similar; select a form button, optionally override some form values, and submit the corresponding form:

$form = $crawler->selectButton('submit')->form();

# set some values
$form['name'] = 'Lucas';
$form['form_name[subject]'] = 'Hey there!';

# submit the form
$crawler = $client->submit($form);

The form can also handle uploads and contains methods to fill in different types of form fields (e.g. select() and tick()). For details, see the Forms section below.

Now when you can easily navigate through an application, use assertions to test that it actually does what you expect it to do. Use the `Crawler` to make assertions on the DOM:

# Assert that the response matches a given CSS selector.
$this->assertTrue($crawler->filter('h1')->count() > 0);

Or, test against the Response content directly if you just want to assert that the content contains some text, or if the Response is not an XML/HTML document:

$this->assertRegExp('/Hello Chris/', $client->getResponse()->getContent());

Run Tests

  1. Functional testing without Selenium
  2. Resources
  3. Requirements
  4. Installation
  5. Your First Functional Test
  6. Working with the Test Client
  7. The Crawler
  8. HTTP headers
  9. Changelog

From protected/tests:

phpunit unit //run all tests from unit folder
phpunit functional //run all tests from functional folder
phpunit functional/SiteControllerTest.php // run specific test

NOTICE WUnit do not require selenium, and if it is not installed on your environment then just comment out the following line in file protected/tests/bootstrap.php


More about request() method

The full signature of the `request()` method is:

    array $parameters = array(),
    array $files = array(),
    array $server = array(),
    $content = null,
    $changeHistory = true

The `server array is the raw values that you'd expect to normally find in the PHP $SERVER` superglobal. For example, to set the Content-Type and Referer HTTP headers, you'd pass the following:

        'CONTENT_TYPE' => 'application/json',
        'HTTP_REFERER' => '/foo/bar',
Useful Assertions

To get you started faster, here is a list of the most common and useful test assertions:

# Assert that there is exactly one h2 tag with the class "subtitle"
$this->assertTrue($crawler->filter('h2.subtitle')->count() > 0);

# Assert that there are 4 h2 tags on the page
$this->assertEquals(4, $crawler->filter('h2')->count());

# Assert the the "Content-Type" header is "application/json"
$this->assertTrue($client->getResponse()->headers->contains('Content-Type', 'application/json'));

# Assert that the response content matches a regexp.
$this->assertRegExp('/foo/', $client->getResponse()->getContent());

# Assert that the response status code is 2xx
# Assert that the response status code is 404
# Assert a specific 200 status code
$this->assertEquals(200, $client->getResponse()->getStatusCode());

# Assert that the response is a redirect to /site/contact
# or simply check that the response is a redirect to any URL

Working with the Test Client

The test Client simulates an HTTP client like a browser and makes requests to your Yii application:

$crawler = $client->request('GET', '/site/index');
# or
$crawler = $client->request('GET', '/');

The `request() method takes the HTTP method and a URL as arguments and returns a Crawler` instance.

Use the Crawler to find DOM elements in the Response. These elements can then be used to click on links and submit forms:

$link = $crawler->selectLink('Go elsewhere...')->link();
$crawler = $client->click($link);

$form = $crawler->selectButton('validate')->form();
$crawler = $client->submit($form, array('name' => 'Chris'));

The `click() and submit() methods both return a Crawler` object. These methods are the best way to browse your application as it takes care of a lot of things for you, like detecting the HTTP method from a form and giving you a nice API for uploading files.

The `request` method can also be used to simulate form submissions directly or perform more complex requests:

# Directly submit a form (but using the Crawler is easier!)
$client->request('POST', '/submit', array('name' => 'Chris'));

# Form submission with a file upload
use Symfony\HttpFoundation\File\UploadedFile;

$photo = new UploadedFile(
# or
$photo = array(
    'tmp_name' => '/path/to/photo.jpg',
    'name' => 'photo.jpg',
    'type' => 'image/jpeg',
    'size' => 123,
    'error' => UPLOAD_ERR_OK
    array('name' => 'Chris'),
    array('photo' => $photo)

# Perform a DELETE requests, and pass HTTP headers
    array('PHP_AUTH_USER' => 'username', 'PHP_AUTH_PW' => 'pa$$word')

Last but not least, you can force each request to be executed in its own PHP process to avoid any side-effects when working with several clients in the same script:


The Client supports many operations that can be done in a real browser:


# Clears all cookies and the history
Accessing Internal Objects

If you use the client to test your application, you might want to access the client's internal objects:

$history   = $client->getHistory();
$cookieJar = $client->getCookieJar();

You can also get the objects related to the latest request:

$request  = $client->getRequest();
$response = $client->getResponse();
$crawler  = $client->getCrawler();

When a request returns a redirect response, the client automatically follows it. If you want to examine the Response before redirecting, you can force the client to skip following redirects with the `followRedirects()` method:


When the client does not follow redirects, you can force the redirection with the `followRedirect()` method:

$crawler = $client->followRedirect();

The Crawler

A Crawler instance is returned each time you make a request with the Client. It allows you to traverse HTML documents, select nodes, find links and forms.


Like jQuery, the Crawler has methods to traverse the DOM of an HTML/XML document. For example, the following finds all `input[type=submit]` elements, selects the last one on the page, and then selects its immediate parent element:

$newCrawler = $crawler->filter('input[type=submit]')

Many other methods are also available:

Method Description
filter('h1.title') Nodes that match the CSS selector
filterXpath('h1') Nodes that match the XPath expression
eq(1) Node for the specified index
first() First node
last() Last node
siblings() Siblings
nextAll() All following siblings
previousAll() All preceding siblings
parents() Parent nodes
children() Children
reduce($lambda) Nodes for which the callable does not return false

Since each of these methods returns a new `Crawler` instance, you can narrow down your node selection by chaining the method calls:

    ->reduce(function ($node, $i)
        if (!$node->getAttribute('class')) {
            return false;

Use the `count() function to get the number of nodes stored in a Crawler: count($crawler)`

Extracting Information

The Crawler can extract information from the nodes:

# Returns the attribute value for the first node

# Returns the node value for the first node

# Extracts an array of attributes for all nodes (_text returns the node value)
# returns an array for each element in crawler, each with the value and href
$info = $crawler->extract(array('_text', 'href'));

# Executes a lambda for each node and return an array of results
$data = $crawler->each(function ($node, $i)
    return $node->getAttribute('href');

To select links, you can use the traversing methods above or the convenient `selectLink()` shortcut:

$crawler->selectLink('Click here');

This selects all links that contain the given text, or clickable images for which the `alt attribute contains the given text. Like the other filtering methods, this returns another Crawler` object.

Once you've selected a link, you have access to a special `Link object, which has helpful methods specific to links (such as getMethod() and getUri()). To click on the link, use the Client's click() method and pass it a Link` object:

$link = $crawler->selectLink('Click here')->link();


Just like links, you select forms with the `selectButton()` method:

$buttonCrawlerNode = $crawler->selectButton('submit');

Notice that we select form buttons and not forms as a form can have several buttons; if you use the traversing API, keep in mind that you must look for a button.

The `selectButton() method can select button tags and submit input` tags. It uses several different parts of the buttons to find them:

  • The `value` attribute value;

  • The `id or alt` attribute value for images;

  • The `id or name attribute value for button` tags.

Once you have a Crawler representing a button, call the `form() method to get a Form` instance for the form wrapping the button node:

$form = $buttonCrawlerNode->form();

When calling the `form()` method, you can also pass an array of field values that overrides the default ones:

$form = $buttonCrawlerNode->form(array(
    'name'              => 'Chris',
    'my_form[subject]'  => 'Weavora rocks!',

And if you want to simulate a specific HTTP method for the form, pass it as a second argument:

$form = $crawler->form(array(), 'DELETE');

The Client can submit `Form` instances:


The field values can also be passed as a second argument of the `submit()` method:

$client->submit($form, array(
    'name'              => 'Chris',
    'my_form[subject]'  => 'Weavora rocks!',

For more complex situations, use the `Form` instance as an array to set the value of each field individually:

# Change the value of a field
$form['name'] = 'Chris';
$form['my_form[subject]'] = 'Weavora rocks!';

There is also a nice API to manipulate the values of the fields according to their type:

# Select an option or a radio

# Tick a checkbox

# Upload a file

You can get the values that will be submitted by calling the `getValues() method on the Form object. The uploaded files are available in a separate array returned by getFiles(). The getPhpValues() and getPhpFiles() methods also return the submitted values, but in the PHP format (it converts the keys with square brackets notation - e.g. my_form[subject]` - to PHP arrays).

HTTP headers

If your application behaves according to some HTTP headers, pass them as the second argument of `createClient()`:

$client = static::createClient(array(), array(
    'HTTP_X_REQUESTED_WITH' => 'XMLHttpRequest',
    'HTTP_USER_AGENT'       => 'MySuperBrowser/1.0',

You can also override HTTP headers on a per request basis:

$client->request('GET', '/', array(), array(), array(
    'HTTP_X_REQUESTED_WITH' => 'XMLHttpRequest',
    'HTTP_USER_AGENT'       => 'MySuperBrowser/1.0',



  • Fixed issues in unix-like systems
  • Enabled followRedirects by default (as per documentation)


  • Added classes autoloader so XPathExpr error should not appear any more
  • Fixed exception with YiiExitApplication
  • Modified manual to specify printerFile into phpunit.xml


  • Public release
13 0
Yii Version: 1.1
License: BSD-2-Clause
Category: Others
Developed by: Weavora Team
Created on: Jan 24, 2012
Last updated: 9 years ago


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