bizley/yii2-mercure Mercure Publisher for Yii 2.

yii2-mercure

  1. Mercure Publisher as Yii 2 component
  2. What is Mercure?
  3. Installation
  4. Configuration
  5. Configuration Details
  6. Usage
  7. Client subscribing using JavaScript
  8. Discovery
  9. Authorization

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Mercure Publisher as Yii 2 component

This package provides component to publish updates to the Mercure hub for Yii 2 framework.

What is Mercure?

Quoting dunglas/mercure: > Mercure is a protocol allowing to push data updates to web browsers and other HTTP clients in a convenient, fast, > reliable and battery-efficient way. It is especially useful to publish real-time updates of resources served through > web APIs, to reactive web and mobile apps.

See the linked repository to find out more about Mercure. There are also instructions how to set up the server and the client to establish connection using Mercure protocol.

Installation

Add the package to your composer.json:

{
    "require": {
        "bizley/yii2-mercure": "^1.0"
    }
}

and run composer update or alternatively run composer require bizley/yii2-mercure:^1.0

You will of course need Mercure Hub as well. Refer to dunglas/mercure for the instructions how to get one (I recommend using Docker image).

Configuration

Add the following in your configuration file:

'components' => [
    'mercure' => [
        'class' => \bizley\yii2\mercure\Publisher::class,
        'hubUrl' => 'http://mercure.local/hub', // URL of the Mercure hub
        'jwt' => '...', // string or anonymous function returning string with JWT (see details below)
        'httpClient' => '...', // HTTP client (see details below)
        'useYii2Client' => true, // HTTP client mode (see details below)            
    ],
],

Configuration Details

  • hubUrl The URL of Mercure hub.
  • jwt JSON Web Token or anonymous function returning it. See Authorization section to learn more.
  • httpClient String with the name of the registered HTTP client component, an array with the HTTP client configuration, or actual HTTP client object. When useYii2Client option is set to true (default) this option is expected to point to Yii 2 HTTP client component. If you want to use it you must install it like described in the link provided and register it in the configuration (so you can set it as 'httpClient' => 'name-of-the-client-component') or provide array configuration for it (like 'httpClient' => ['class' => \yii\httpclient\Client::class]).
  • useYii2Client Boolean flag indicating whether this component should expect Yii 2 HTTP client as HTTP client (true by default) or other custom HTTP client (false).

Usage

The application must bear a JSON Web Token (JWT) to the Mercure Hub to be authorized to publish updates.

This JWT should be stored in the jwt property mentioned earlier.

The JWT must be signed with the same secret key as the one used by the Hub to verify the JWT (default Mercure demo key is !ChangeMe! - not to be used on production). Its payload must contain at least the following structure to be allowed to publish:

{
    "mercure": {
        "publish": []
    }
}

Because the array is empty, the app will only be authorized to publish public updates (see the Authorization section for further information).

TIP: The jwt.io website is a convenient way to create and sign JWTs. Checkout this example JWT, that grants publishing rights for all targets (notice the star in the array). Don't forget to set your secret key properly in the bottom of the right panel of the form!

When you want to publish update to the Mercure hub simply call

\Yii::$app->mercure->publish($update);

where $update is an instance of \bizley\yii2\mercure\Update class. For example:

\Yii::$app->mercure->publish(
    new \bizley\yii2\mercure\Update(
        'http://example.com/books/1',
        \yii\helpers\Json::encode(['status' => 'OutOfStock'])
    )
);

The first parameter to pass to the Update constructor is the topic being updated. This topic should be an IRI (Internationalized Resource Identifier, RFC 3987): a unique identifier of the resource being dispatched.

Usually, this parameter contains the original URL of the resource transmitted to the client, but it can be any valid IRI, it doesn't have to be an URL that exists (similarly to XML namespaces).

The second parameter of the constructor is the content of the update. It can be anything, stored in any format. However, serializing the resource in a hypermedia format such as JSON-LD, Atom, HTML or XML is recommended.

Client subscribing using JavaScript

const eventSource = new EventSource(
    'http://localhost:3000/hub?topic=' + encodeURIComponent('http://example.com/books/1')
);
eventSource.onmessage = event => {
    // Will be called every time an update is published by the server
    console.log(JSON.parse(event.data));
}

Mercure also allows to subscribe to several topics, and to use URI Templates as patterns:

// URL is a built-in JavaScript class to manipulate URLs
const url = new URL('http://localhost:3000/hub');
url.searchParams.append('topic', 'http://example.com/books/1');
// Subscribe to updates of several Book resources
url.searchParams.append('topic', 'http://example.com/books/2');
// All Review resources will match this pattern
url.searchParams.append('topic', 'http://example.com/reviews/{id}');

const eventSource = new EventSource(url);
eventSource.onmessage = event => {
    console.log(JSON.parse(event.data));
}

Discovery

The Mercure protocol comes with a discovery mechanism. To leverage it, the application must expose the URL of the Mercure Hub in a Link HTTP header.

namespace app\controllers;

use yii\web\Controller;

class BookController extends Controller
{
    public function actionView($id)
    {
        $hubUrl = 'http://localhost:3000/hub';

        $response = $this->asJson([
            '@id' => '/books/' . $id,
            'availability' => 'https://schema.org/InStock',
        ]);
        $response->getHeaders()->set('Link', "<$hubUrl>; rel=mercure");
        
        return $response;
    }
}

Then, this header can be parsed client-side to find the URL of the Hub, and to subscribe to it:

// Fetch the original resource served by the web API
fetch('/books/1') // Has Link: <http://localhost:3000/hub>; rel=mercure
    .then(response => {
        // Extract the hub URL from the Link header
        const hubUrl = response.headers.get('Link').match(/<([^>]+)>;\s+rel=(?:mercure|"[^"]*mercure[^"]*")/)[1];

        // Append the topic(s) to subscribe as query parameter
        const hub = new URL(hubUrl);
        hub.searchParams.append('topic', 'http://example.com/books/{id}');

        // Subscribe to updates
        const eventSource = new EventSource(hub);
        eventSource.onmessage = event => console.log(event.data);
    });

Authorization

Mercure also allows to dispatch updates only to authorized clients. To do so, set the list of targets allowed to receive the update as the third parameter of the Update constructor:

\Yii::$app->mercure->publish(
    new \bizley\yii2\mercure\Update(
        'http://example.com/books/1',
        \yii\helpers\Json::encode(['status' => 'OutOfStock']),
        ['http://example.com/user/kevin', 'http://example.com/groups/admin'] // Here are the targets
    )
);

Publisher's JWT must contain all of these targets or * in mercure.publish or you'll get a 401.
Subscriber's JWT must contain at least one of these targets or * in mercure.subscribe to receive the update.

To subscribe to private updates, subscribers must provide a JWT containing at least one target marking the update to the Hub.

To provide this JWT, the subscriber can use a cookie, or a Authorization HTTP header. Cookies are automatically sent by the browsers when opening an EventSource connection. They are the most secure and preferred way when the client is a web browser. If the client is not a web browser, then using an authorization header is the way to go.

In the following example controller, the generated cookie contains a JWT, itself containing the appropriate targets. This cookie will be automatically sent by the web browser when connecting to the Hub. Then, the Hub will verify the validity of the provided JWT, and extract the targets from it.

To generate the JWT, we'll use the bizley/jwt which is Yii 2 component with lcobucci/jwt library. Install it:

composer require bizley/jwt

and configure:

'components' => [
    'jwt' => [
        'class' => \bizley\jwt\Jwt::class,
        'key' => '!ChangeMe!' // default Mercure demo key not to be used on production
    ],
],

Now the controller:

namespace app\controllers;

use bizley\jwt\JWT;
use Lcobucci\JWT\Signer\Hmac\Sha256;
use Yii;
use yii\web\Controller;
use yii\web\Cookie;
    
class BookController extends Controller
{
    public function actionView($id)
    {
        $hubUrl = 'http://localhost:3000/hub';
        
        $username = Yii::$app->user->name; // Retrieve the username of the current user
        
        $token = Yii::$app->jwt->getBuilder()
            // set other appropriate JWT claims, such as an expiration date
            ->set(
                'mercure',
                ['subscribe' => ["http://example.com/user/$username"]]
                // could also include the security roles, or anything else
            )
            ->sign(new Sha256(), Yii::$app->jwt->key)
            ->getToken();
                
        $response = $this->asJson([
            '@id' => '/books/' . $id,
            'availability' => 'https://schema.org/InStock',
        ]);
        $response->getHeaders()->set('Link', "<$hubUrl>; rel=mercure");
        $response->cookies->add(new Cookie([
            'name' => 'mercureAuthorization',
            'value' => $token,
            'path' => '/hub',
            'secure' => true,
            'sameSite' => Cookie::SAME_SITE_STRICT, // from PHP 7.3 and Yii 2.0.21
        ]));
        
        return $response;
    }
}

NOTE: To use the cookie authentication method, the app and the Hub must be served from the same domain (can be different sub-domains).

Some parts of this documentation are copied from Symfony's "Pushing Data to Clients Using the Mercure Protocol" page.

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1 follower
9 downloads
Yii Version: 2.0
License: Apache-2.0
Category: Web Service
Developed by: Bizley
Created on: Sep 24, 2019
Last updated: (not set)
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