Authentication and Authorization

Authentication and authorization are required for a Web page that should be limited to certain users. Authentication is about verifying whether someone is who they claim to be. It usually involves a username and a password, but may include any other methods of demonstrating identity, such as a smart card, fingerprints, etc. Authorization is finding out if the person, once identified (i.e. authenticated), is permitted to manipulate specific resources. This is usually determined by finding out if that person is of a particular role that has access to the resources.

Yii has a built-in authentication/authorization (auth) framework which is easy to use and can be customized for special needs.

The central piece in the Yii auth framework is a pre-declared user application component which is an object implementing the IWebUser interface. The user component represents the persistent identity information for the current user. We can access it at any place using Yii::app()->user.

Using the user component, we can check if a user is logged in or not via CWebUser::isGuest; we can login and logout a user; we can check if the user can perform specific operations by calling CWebUser::checkAccess; and we can also obtain the unique identifier and other persistent identity information about the user.

1. Defining Identity Class

As mentioned above, authentication is about validating the identity of the user. A typical Web application authentication implementation usually involves using a username and password combination to verify a user's identity. However, it may include other methods and different implementations may be required. To accommodate varying authentication methods, the Yii auth framework introduces the identity class.

We define an identity class which contains the actual authentication logic. The identity class should implement the IUserIdentity interface. Different identity classes can be implemented for different authentication approaches (e.g. OpenID, LDAP, Twitter OAuth, Facebook Connect). A good start when writing your own implementation is to extend CUserIdentity which is a base class for the authentication approach using a username and password.

The main work in defining an identity class is the implementation of the IUserIdentity::authenticate method. This is the method used to encapsulate the main details of the authentication approach. An identity class may also declare additional identity information that needs to be persistent during the user session.

An Example

In the following example, we use an identity class to demonstrate using a database approach to authentication. This is typical in Web applications. A user will enter their username and password into a login form, and then we validate these credentials, using ActiveRecord, against a user table in the database . There are actually a few things being demonstrated in this single example:

  1. The implementation of the authenticate() method to use the database to validate credentials.
  2. Overriding the CUserIdentity::getId() method to return the _id property because the default implementation returns the username as the ID.
  3. Using the setState() (CBaseUserIdentity::setState) method to demonstrate storing other information that can easily be retrieved upon subsequent requests.
class UserIdentity extends CUserIdentity
{
    private $_id;
    public function authenticate()
    {
        $record=User::model()->findByAttributes(array('username'=>$this->username));
        if($record===null)
            $this->errorCode=self::ERROR_USERNAME_INVALID;
        else if($record->password!==crypt($this->password,$record->password))
            $this->errorCode=self::ERROR_PASSWORD_INVALID;
        else
        {
            $this->_id=$record->id;
            $this->setState('title', $record->title);
            $this->errorCode=self::ERROR_NONE;
        }
        return !$this->errorCode;
    }
 
    public function getId()
    {
        return $this->_id;
    }
}

When we cover login and logout in the next section, we'll see that we pass this identity class into the login method for a user. Any information that we store in a state (by calling CBaseUserIdentity::setState) will be passed to CWebUser, which in turn will store them in a persistent storage, such as session. This information can then be accessed like properties of CWebUser. In our example, we stored the user title information via $this->setState('title', $record->title);. Once we complete our login process, we can obtain the title information of the current user by simply using Yii::app()->user->title.

Info: By default, CWebUser uses session as persistent storage for user identity information. If cookie-based login is enabled (by setting CWebUser::allowAutoLogin to be true), the user identity information may also be saved in cookie. Make sure you do not declare sensitive information (e.g. password) to be persistent.

Storing passwords in the database

Secure storage of user passwords in a database requires some care. An attacker that has stolen your user table (or a backup of it) can recover passwords using standard techniques if you don't protect against them. In particular you should salt the password before hashing and use a hash function that takes the attacker a long time to compute. The above code example uses the built-in PHP crypt() function which, with appropriate use, returns hashes that are very hard to crack.

To learn more about these topics please read.

2. Login and Logout

Now that we have seen an example of creating a user identity, we use this to help ease the implementation of our needed login and logout actions. The following code demonstrates how this is accomplished:

// Login a user with the provided username and password.
$identity=new UserIdentity($username,$password);
if($identity->authenticate())
    Yii::app()->user->login($identity);
else
    echo $identity->errorMessage;
......
// Logout the current user
Yii::app()->user->logout();

Here we are creating a new UserIdentity object and passing in the authentication credentials (i.e. the $username and $password values submitted by the user) to its constructor. We then simply call the authenticate() method. If successful, we pass the identity information into the CWebUser::login method, which will store the identity information into persistent storage (PHP session by default) for retrieval upon subsequent requests. If the authentication fails, we can interrogate the errorMessage property for more information as to why it failed.

Whether or not a user has been authenticated can easily be checked throughout the application by using Yii::app()->user->isGuest. If using persistent storage like session (the default) and/or a cookie (discussed below) to store the identity information, the user can remain logged in upon subsequent requests. In this case, we don't need to use the UserIdentity class and the entire login process upon each request. Rather CWebUser will automatically take care of loading the identity information from this persistent storage and will use it to determine whether Yii::app()->user->isGuest returns true or false.

By default, a user will be logged out after a certain period of inactivity, depending on the session configuration. To change this behavior, we can set the allowAutoLogin property of the user component to be true and pass a duration parameter to the CWebUser::login method. The user will then remain logged in for the specified duration, even if he closes his browser window. Note that this feature requires the user's browser to accept cookies.

// Keep the user logged in for 7 days.
// Make sure allowAutoLogin is set true for the user component.
Yii::app()->user->login($identity,3600*24*7);

As we mentioned above, when cookie-based login is enabled, the states stored via CBaseUserIdentity::setState will be saved in the cookie as well. The next time when the user is logged in, these states will be read from the cookie and made accessible via Yii::app()->user.

Although Yii has measures to prevent the state cookie from being tampered on the client side, we strongly suggest that security sensitive information be not stored as states. Instead, these information should be restored on the server side by reading from some persistent storage on the server side (e.g. database).

In addition, for any serious Web applications, we recommend using the following strategy to enhance the security of cookie-based login.

  • When a user successfully logs in by filling out a login form, we generate and store a random key in both the cookie state and in persistent storage on server side (e.g. database).

  • Upon a subsequent request, when the user authentication is being done via the cookie information, we compare the two copies of this random key and ensure a match before logging in the user.

  • If the user logs in via the login form again, the key needs to be re-generated.

By using the above strategy, we eliminate the possibility that a user may re-use an old state cookie which may contain outdated state information.

To implement the above strategy, we need to override the following two methods:

  • CUserIdentity::authenticate(): this is where the real authentication is performed. If the user is authenticated, we should re-generate a new random key, and store it in the database as well as in the identity states via CBaseUserIdentity::setState.

  • CWebUser::beforeLogin(): this is called when a user is being logged in. We should check if the key obtained from the state cookie is the same as the one from the database.

4. Access Control Filter

Access control filter is a preliminary authorization scheme that checks if the current user can perform the requested controller action. The authorization is based on user's name, client IP address and request types. It is provided as a filter named as "accessControl".

Tip: Access control filter is sufficient for simple scenarios. For more complex access control you may use role-based access (RBAC), which we will cover in the next subsection.

To control the access to actions in a controller, we install the access control filter by overriding CController::filters (see Filter for more details about installing filters).

class PostController extends CController
{
    ......
    public function filters()
    {
        return array(
            'accessControl',
        );
    }
}

In the above, we specify that the access control filter should be applied to every action of PostController. The detailed authorization rules used by the filter are specified by overriding CController::accessRules in the controller class.

class PostController extends CController
{
    ......
    public function accessRules()
    {
        return array(
            array('deny',
                'actions'=>array('create', 'edit'),
                'users'=>array('?'),
            ),
            array('allow',
                'actions'=>array('delete'),
                'roles'=>array('admin'),
            ),
            array('deny',
                'actions'=>array('delete'),
                'users'=>array('*'),
            ),
        );
    }
}

The above code specifies three rules, each represented as an array. The first element of the array is either 'allow' or 'deny' and the other name-value pairs specify the pattern parameters of the rule. The rules defined above are interpreted as follows: the create and edit actions cannot be executed by anonymous users; the delete action can be executed by users with admin role; and the delete action cannot be executed by anyone.

The access rules are evaluated one by one in the order they are specified. The first rule that matches the current pattern (e.g. username, roles, client IP, address) determines the authorization result. If this rule is an allow rule, the action can be executed; if it is a deny rule, the action cannot be executed; if none of the rules matches the context, the action can still be executed.

Tip: To ensure an action does not get executed under certain contexts, it is beneficial to always specify a matching-all deny rule at the end of rule set, like the following:

return array(
    // ... other rules...
    // the following rule denies 'delete' action for all contexts
    array('deny',
        'actions'=>array('delete'),
    ),
);

The reason for this rule is because if none of the rules matches a context, then the action will continue to be executed.

An access rule can match the following context parameters:

  • actions: specifies which actions this rule matches. This should be an array of action IDs. The comparison is case-insensitive.

  • controllers: specifies which controllers this rule matches. This should be an array of controller IDs. The comparison is case-insensitive.

  • users: specifies which users this rule matches. The current user's name is used for matching. The comparison is case-insensitive. Three special characters can be used here:

    • *: any user, including both anonymous and authenticated users.
    • ?: anonymous users.
    • @: authenticated users.
  • roles: specifies which roles that this rule matches. This makes use of the role-based access control feature to be described in the next subsection. In particular, the rule is applied if CWebUser::checkAccess returns true for one of the roles. Note, you should mainly use roles in an allow rule because by definition, a role represents a permission to do something. Also note, although we use the term roles here, its value can actually be any auth item, including roles, tasks and operations.

  • ips: specifies which client IP addresses this rule matches.

  • verbs: specifies which request types (e.g. GET, POST) this rule matches. The comparison is case-insensitive.

  • expression: specifies a PHP expression whose value indicates whether this rule matches. In the expression, you can use variable $user which refers to Yii::app()->user.

5. Handling Authorization Result

When authorization fails, i.e., the user is not allowed to perform the specified action, one of the following two scenarios may happen:

  • If the user is not logged in and if the loginUrl property of the user component is configured to be the URL of the login page, the browser will be redirected to that page. Note that by default, loginUrl points to the site/login page.

  • Otherwise an HTTP exception will be displayed with error code 403.

When configuring the loginUrl property, one can provide a relative or absolute URL. One can also provide an array which will be used to generate a URL by calling CWebApplication::createUrl. The first array element should specify the route to the login controller action, and the rest name-value pairs are GET parameters. For example,

array(
    ......
    'components'=>array(
        'user'=>array(
            // this is actually the default value
            'loginUrl'=>array('site/login'),
        ),
    ),
)

If the browser is redirected to the login page and the login is successful, we may want to redirect the browser back to the page that caused the authorization failure. How do we know the URL for that page? We can get this information from the returnUrl property of the user component. We can thus do the following to perform the redirection:

Yii::app()->request->redirect(Yii::app()->user->returnUrl);

6. Role-Based Access Control

Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) provides a simple yet powerful centralized access control. Please refer to the Wiki article for more details about comparing RBAC with other more traditional access control schemes.

Yii implements a hierarchical RBAC scheme via its authManager application component. In the following ,we first introduce the main concepts used in this scheme; we then describe how to define authorization data; at the end we show how to make use of the authorization data to perform access checking.

Overview

A fundamental concept in Yii's RBAC is authorization item. An authorization item is a permission to do something (e.g. creating new blog posts, managing users). According to its granularity and targeted audience, authorization items can be classified as operations, tasks and roles. A role consists of tasks, a task consists of operations, and an operation is a permission that is atomic. For example, we can have a system with administrator role which consists of post management task and user management task. The user management task may consist of create user, update user and delete user operations. For more flexibility, Yii also allows a role to consist of other roles or operations, a task to consist of other tasks, and an operation to consist of other operations.

An authorization item is uniquely identified by its name.

An authorization item may be associated with a business rule. A business rule is a piece of PHP code that will be executed when performing access checking with respect to the item. Only when the execution returns true, will the user be considered to have the permission represented by the item. For example, when defining an operation updatePost, we would like to add a business rule that checks if the user ID is the same as the post's author ID so that only the author himself can have the permission to update a post.

Using authorization items, we can build up an authorization hierarchy. An item A is a parent of another item B in the hierarchy if A consists of B (or say A inherits the permission(s) represented by B). An item can have multiple child items, and it can also have multiple parent items. Therefore, an authorization hierarchy is a partial-order graph rather than a tree. In this hierarchy, role items sit on top levels, operation items on bottom levels, while task items in between.

Once we have an authorization hierarchy, we can assign roles in this hierarchy to application users. A user, once assigned with a role, will have the permissions represented by the role. For example, if we assign the administrator role to a user, he will have the administrator permissions which include post management and user management (and the corresponding operations such as create user).

Now the fun part starts. In a controller action, we want to check if the current user can delete the specified post. Using the RBAC hierarchy and assignment, this can be done easily as follows:

if(Yii::app()->user->checkAccess('deletePost'))
{
    // delete the post
}

7. Configuring Authorization Manager

Before we set off to define an authorization hierarchy and perform access checking, we need to configure the authManager application component. Yii provides two types of authorization managers: CPhpAuthManager and CDbAuthManager. The former uses a PHP script file to store authorization data, while the latter stores authorization data in database. When we configure the authManager application component, we need to specify which component class to use and what are the initial property values for the component. For example,

return array(
    'components'=>array(
        'db'=>array(
            'class'=>'CDbConnection',
            'connectionString'=>'sqlite:path/to/file.db',
        ),
        'authManager'=>array(
            'class'=>'CDbAuthManager',
            'connectionID'=>'db',
        ),
    ),
);

We can then access the authManager application component using Yii::app()->authManager.

8. Defining Authorization Hierarchy

Defining authorization hierarchy involves three steps: defining authorization items, establishing relationships between authorization items, and assigning roles to application users. The authManager application component provides a whole set of APIs to accomplish these tasks.

To define an authorization item, call one of the following methods, depending on the type of the item:

Once we have a set of authorization items, we can call the following methods to establish relationships between authorization items:

And finally, we call the following methods to assign role items to individual users:

Below we show an example about building an authorization hierarchy with the provided APIs:

$auth=Yii::app()->authManager;
 
$auth->createOperation('createPost','create a post');
$auth->createOperation('readPost','read a post');
$auth->createOperation('updatePost','update a post');
$auth->createOperation('deletePost','delete a post');
 
$bizRule='return Yii::app()->user->id==$params["post"]->authID;';
$task=$auth->createTask('updateOwnPost','update a post by author himself',$bizRule);
$task->addChild('updatePost');
 
$role=$auth->createRole('reader');
$role->addChild('readPost');
 
$role=$auth->createRole('author');
$role->addChild('reader');
$role->addChild('createPost');
$role->addChild('updateOwnPost');
 
$role=$auth->createRole('editor');
$role->addChild('reader');
$role->addChild('updatePost');
 
$role=$auth->createRole('admin');
$role->addChild('editor');
$role->addChild('author');
$role->addChild('deletePost');
 
$auth->assign('reader','readerA');
$auth->assign('author','authorB');
$auth->assign('editor','editorC');
$auth->assign('admin','adminD');

Once we have established this hierarchy, the authManager component (e.g. CPhpAuthManager, CDbAuthManager) will load the authorization items automatically. Therefore, we only need to run the above code one time, and NOT for every request.

Info: While the above example looks long and tedious, it is mainly for demonstrative purposes. Developers will usually need to develop some administrative user interfaces so that end users can establish an authorization hierarchy more intuitively.

9. Using Business Rules

When we are defining the authorization hierarchy, we can associate a role, a task or an operation with a so-called business rule. We may also associate a business rule when we assign a role to a user. A business rule is a piece of PHP code that is executed when we perform access checking. The returning value of the code is used to determine if the role or assignment applies to the current user. In the example above, we associated a business rule with the updateOwnPost task. In the business rule we simply check if the current user ID is the same as the specified post's author ID. The post information in the $params array is supplied by developers when performing access checking.

Access Checking

To perform access checking, we first need to know the name of the authorization item. For example, to check if the current user can create a post, we would check if he has the permission represented by the createPost operation. We then call CWebUser::checkAccess to perform the access checking:

if(Yii::app()->user->checkAccess('createPost'))
{
    // create post
}

If the authorization rule is associated with a business rule which requires additional parameters, we can pass them as well. For example, to check if a user can update a post, we would pass in the post data in the $params:

$params=array('post'=>$post);
if(Yii::app()->user->checkAccess('updateOwnPost',$params))
{
    // update post
}

Using Default Roles

Many Web applications need some very special roles that would be assigned to every or most of the system users. For example, we may want to assign some privileges to all authenticated users. It poses a lot of maintenance trouble if we explicitly specify and store these role assignments. We can exploit default roles to solve this problem.

A default role is a role that is implicitly assigned to every user. We do not need to explicitly assign it to a user. When CWebUser::checkAccess is invoked, default roles will be checked first as if they are assigned to the user.

Default roles must be declared in the CAuthManager::defaultRoles property. For example, the following configuration declares two roles to be default roles: authenticated and admin.

return array(
    'components'=>array(
        'authManager'=>array(
            'class'=>'CDbAuthManager',
            'defaultRoles'=>array('authenticated', 'admin'),
        ),
    ),
);

Because a default role is assigned to every user, it usually needs to be associated with a business rule that determines whether the role really applies to the user. For example, the following code defines two roles, authenticated and admin, which effectively apply to authenticated users and users with the username admin, respectively.

$bizRule='return !Yii::app()->user->isGuest;';
$auth->createRole('authenticated', 'authenticated user', $bizRule);
 
$bizRule='return Yii::app()->user->name === "admin";';
$auth->createRole('admin', 'admin user', $bizRule);

Info: Since version 1.1.11 the $params array passed to a business rule has a key named userId whose value is the id of the user the business rule is checked for. You would need this if you call CDbAuthManager::checkAccess() or CPhpAuthManager::checkAccess() in places where Yii::app()->user is not available or not the user you are checking access for.

$Id$

Be the first person to leave a comment

Please to leave your comment.