View

A view is a PHP script consisting mainly of user interface elements. It can contain PHP statements, but it is recommended that these statements should not alter data models and should remain relatively simple. In the spirit of separating of logic and presentation, large chunks of logic should be placed in controllers or models rather than in views.

A view has a name which is used to identify the view script file when rendering. The name of a view is the same as the name of its view script. For example, the view name edit refers to a view script named edit.php. To render a view, call CController::render() with the name of the view. The method will look for the corresponding view file under the directory protected/views/ControllerID.

Inside the view script, we can access the controller instance using $this. We can thus pull in any property of the controller by evaluating $this->propertyName in the view.

We can also use the following push approach to pass data to the view:

$this->render('edit', array(
    'var1'=>$value1,
    'var2'=>$value2,
));

In the above, the render() method will extract the second array parameter into variables. As a result, in the view script we can access the local variables $var1 and $var2.

1. Layout

Layout is a special view that is used to decorate views. It usually contains parts of a user interface that are common among several views. For example, a layout may contain a header and a footer, and embed the view in between, like this:

......header here......
<?php echo $content; ?>
......footer here......

where $content stores the rendering result of the view.

Layout is implicitly applied when calling render(). By default, the view script protected/views/layouts/main.php is used as the layout. This can be customized by changing either CWebApplication::layout or CController::layout. To render a view without applying any layout, call renderPartial() instead.

2. Widget

A widget is an instance of CWidget or a child class of CWidget. It is a component that is mainly for presentational purposes. A widget is usually embedded in a view script to generate a complex, yet self-contained user interface. For example, a calendar widget can be used to render a complex calendar user interface. Widgets facilitate better reusability in user interface code.

To use a widget, do as follows in a view script:

<?php $this->beginWidget('path.to.WidgetClass'); ?>
...body content that may be captured by the widget...
<?php $this->endWidget(); ?>

or

<?php $this->widget('path.to.WidgetClass'); ?>

The latter is used when the widget does not need any body content.

Widgets can be configured to customize their behavior. This is done by setting their initial property values when calling CBaseController::beginWidget or CBaseController::widget. For example, when using a CMaskedTextField widget, we might like to specify the mask being used. We can do so by passing an array of initial property values as follows, where the array keys are property names and array values are the initial values of the corresponding widget properties:

<?php
$this->widget('CMaskedTextField',array(
    'mask'=>'99/99/9999'
));
?>

To define a new widget, extend CWidget and override its init() and run() methods:

class MyWidget extends CWidget
{
    public function init()
    {
        // this method is called by CController::beginWidget()
    }
 
    public function run()
    {
        // this method is called by CController::endWidget()
    }
}

Like a controller, a widget can also have its own view. By default, widget view files are located under the views subdirectory of the directory containing the widget class file. These views can be rendered by calling CWidget::render(), similar to that in controller. The only difference is that no layout will be applied to a widget view. Also, $this in the view refers to the widget instance instead of the controller instance.

Tip: CWidgetFactory::widgets can be used to configure widgets on a site-wide basis, allowing much easier base configuration. You can find more details on the theming page

3. System View

System views refer to the views used by Yii to display error and logging information. For example, when a user requests for a non-existing controller or action, Yii will throw an exception explaining the error. Yii displays the exception using a specific system view.

The naming of system views follows some rules. Names like errorXXX refer to views for displaying CHttpException with error code XXX. For example, if CHttpException is raised with error code 404, the error404 view will be displayed.

Yii provides a set of default system views located under framework/views. They can be customized by creating the same-named view files under protected/views/system.

$Id$

Total 3 comments

#16871 report it
Emile Bons at 2014/04/05 04:42am
Rendering a view with a different extension

A view with (for example) .html as extension can be rendered as well using renderFile:

public function actionIndex() {
   $this->renderFile('index.html');
}
#8950 report it
rix.rix. at 2012/07/09 10:18am
Remember a view file can only be .php

Just a reminder a view file must have the .php extension to be rendered.

Twice now i've spent time debugging why view.htm would not render. DOH!

#4980 report it
Francis.TM at 2011/09/03 06:08am
To capture contents between CController::beginWidget() and CController::endWidget()

In the view:

<?php $this->beginWidget('ext.MyExt'); ?>
    here is some content
<?php $this->endWidget(); ?>

To capture contents between these methods, just using following codes. In MyExt:

class MyExt extends CWidget
{
    public function init()
    {
        ob_start();
    }
 
    public function run()
    {
        $content = ob_get_clean();
        // the variable above is what you want to captured,
        // and it will not output unless echo this variable.
    }
}

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