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CUrlManager

Package system.web
Inheritance class CUrlManager » CApplicationComponent » CComponent
Implements IApplicationComponent
Since 1.0
Source Code framework/web/CUrlManager.php
CUrlManager manages the URLs of Yii Web applications.

It provides URL construction (createUrl()) as well as parsing (parseUrl()) functionality.

URLs managed via CUrlManager can be in one of the following two formats, by setting urlFormat property:
  • 'path' format: /path/to/EntryScript.php/name1/value1/name2/value2...
  • 'get' format: /path/to/EntryScript.php?name1=value1&name2=value2...


When using 'path' format, CUrlManager uses a set of rules to:
  • parse the requested URL into a route ('ControllerID/ActionID') and GET parameters;
  • create URLs based on the given route and GET parameters.


A rule consists of a route and a pattern. The latter is used by CUrlManager to determine which rule is used for parsing/creating URLs. A pattern is meant to match the path info part of a URL. It may contain named parameters using the syntax '<ParamName:RegExp>'.

When parsing a URL, a matching rule will extract the named parameters from the path info and put them into the $_GET variable; when creating a URL, a matching rule will extract the named parameters from $_GET and put them into the path info part of the created URL.

If a pattern ends with '/*', it means additional GET parameters may be appended to the path info part of the URL; otherwise, the GET parameters can only appear in the query string part.

To specify URL rules, set the rules property as an array of rules (pattern=>route). For example,
array(
    'articles'=>'article/list',
    'article/<id:\d+>/*'=>'article/read',
)
Two rules are specified in the above:
  • The first rule says that if the user requests the URL '/path/to/index.php/articles', it should be treated as '/path/to/index.php/article/list'; and vice versa applies when constructing such a URL.
  • The second rule contains a named parameter 'id' which is specified using the <ParamName:RegExp> syntax. It says that if the user requests the URL '/path/to/index.php/article/13', it should be treated as '/path/to/index.php/article/read?id=13'; and vice versa applies when constructing such a URL.


The route part may contain references to named parameters defined in the pattern part. This allows a rule to be applied to different routes based on matching criteria. For example,
array(
     '<_c:(post|comment)>/<id:\d+>/<_a:(create|update|delete)>'=>'<_c>/<_a>',
     '<_c:(post|comment)>/<id:\d+>'=>'<_c>/view',
     '<_c:(post|comment)>s/*'=>'<_c>/list',
)
In the above, we use two named parameters '<_c>' and '<_a>' in the route part. The '<_c>' parameter matches either 'post' or 'comment', while the '<_a>' parameter matches an action ID.

Like normal rules, these rules can be used for both parsing and creating URLs. For example, using the rules above, the URL '/index.php/post/123/create' would be parsed as the route 'post/create' with GET parameter 'id' being 123. And given the route 'post/list' and GET parameter 'page' being 2, we should get a URL '/index.php/posts/page/2'.

It is also possible to include hostname into the rules for parsing and creating URLs. One may extract part of the hostname to be a GET parameter. For example, the URL http://admin.example.com/en/profile may be parsed into GET parameters user=admin and lang=en. On the other hand, rules with hostname may also be used to create URLs with parameterized hostnames.

In order to use parameterized hostnames, simply declare URL rules with host info, e.g.:
array(
    'http://<user:\w+>.example.com/<lang:\w+>/profile' => 'user/profile',
)


Starting from version 1.1.8, one can write custom URL rule classes and use them for one or several URL rules. For example,
array(
  // a standard rule
  '<action:(login|logout)>' => 'site/<action>',
  // a custom rule using data in DB
  array(
    'class' => 'application.components.MyUrlRule',
    'connectionID' => 'db',
  ),
)
Please note that the custom URL rule class should extend from CBaseUrlRule and implement the following two methods,

CUrlManager is a default application component that may be accessed via CWebApplication::getUrlManager().

Public Properties

Hide inherited properties

PropertyTypeDescriptionDefined By
appendParams boolean whether to append GET parameters to the path info part. CUrlManager
baseUrl string Returns the base URL of the application. CUrlManager
behaviors array the behaviors that should be attached to this component. CApplicationComponent
cacheID string the ID of the cache application component that is used to cache the parsed URL rules. CUrlManager
caseSensitive boolean whether routes are case-sensitive. CUrlManager
isInitialized boolean Checks if this application component has been initialized. CApplicationComponent
matchValue boolean whether the GET parameter values should match the corresponding sub-patterns in a rule before using it to create a URL. CUrlManager
routeVar string the GET variable name for route. CUrlManager
rules array the URL rules (pattern=>route). CUrlManager
showScriptName boolean whether to show entry script name in the constructed URL. CUrlManager
urlFormat string Returns the URL format. CUrlManager
urlRuleClass string the class name or path alias for the URL rule instances. CUrlManager
urlSuffix string the URL suffix used when in 'path' format. CUrlManager
useStrictParsing boolean whether to enable strict URL parsing. CUrlManager

Public Methods

Hide inherited methods

MethodDescriptionDefined By
__call() Calls the named method which is not a class method. CComponent
__get() Returns a property value, an event handler list or a behavior based on its name. CComponent
__isset() Checks if a property value is null. CComponent
__set() Sets value of a component property. CComponent
__unset() Sets a component property to be null. CComponent
addRules() Adds new URL rules. CUrlManager
asa() Returns the named behavior object. CComponent
attachBehavior() Attaches a behavior to this component. CComponent
attachBehaviors() Attaches a list of behaviors to the component. CComponent
attachEventHandler() Attaches an event handler to an event. CComponent
canGetProperty() Determines whether a property can be read. CComponent
canSetProperty() Determines whether a property can be set. CComponent
createPathInfo() Creates a path info based on the given parameters. CUrlManager
createUrl() Constructs a URL. CUrlManager
detachBehavior() Detaches a behavior from the component. CComponent
detachBehaviors() Detaches all behaviors from the component. CComponent
detachEventHandler() Detaches an existing event handler. CComponent
disableBehavior() Disables an attached behavior. CComponent
disableBehaviors() Disables all behaviors attached to this component. CComponent
enableBehavior() Enables an attached behavior. CComponent
enableBehaviors() Enables all behaviors attached to this component. CComponent
evaluateExpression() Evaluates a PHP expression or callback under the context of this component. CComponent
getBaseUrl() Returns the base URL of the application. CUrlManager
getEventHandlers() Returns the list of attached event handlers for an event. CComponent
getIsInitialized() Checks if this application component has been initialized. CApplicationComponent
getUrlFormat() Returns the URL format. CUrlManager
hasEvent() Determines whether an event is defined. CComponent
hasEventHandler() Checks whether the named event has attached handlers. CComponent
hasProperty() Determines whether a property is defined. CComponent
init() Initializes the application component. CUrlManager
parsePathInfo() Parses a path info into URL segments and saves them to $_GET and $_REQUEST. CUrlManager
parseUrl() Parses the user request. CUrlManager
raiseEvent() Raises an event. CComponent
removeUrlSuffix() Removes the URL suffix from path info. CUrlManager
setBaseUrl() Sets the base URL of the application (the part after host name and before query string). CUrlManager
setUrlFormat() Sets the URL format. CUrlManager

Protected Methods

Hide inherited methods

MethodDescriptionDefined By
createUrlDefault() Creates a URL based on default settings. CUrlManager
createUrlRule() Creates a URL rule instance. CUrlManager
processRules() Processes the URL rules. CUrlManager

Property Details

appendParams property
public boolean $appendParams;

whether to append GET parameters to the path info part. Defaults to true. This property is only effective when urlFormat is 'path' and is mainly used when creating URLs. When it is true, GET parameters will be appended to the path info and separate from each other using slashes. If this is false, GET parameters will be in query part.

baseUrl property
public string getBaseUrl()
public void setBaseUrl(string $value)

Returns the base URL of the application.

cacheID property
public string $cacheID;

the ID of the cache application component that is used to cache the parsed URL rules. Defaults to 'cache' which refers to the primary cache application component. Set this property to false if you want to disable caching URL rules.

caseSensitive property
public boolean $caseSensitive;

whether routes are case-sensitive. Defaults to true. By setting this to false, the route in the incoming request will be turned to lower case first before further processing. As a result, you should follow the convention that you use lower case when specifying controller mapping (CWebApplication::controllerMap) and action mapping (CController::actions). Also, the directory names for organizing controllers should be in lower case.

matchValue property (available since v1.1.0)
public boolean $matchValue;

whether the GET parameter values should match the corresponding sub-patterns in a rule before using it to create a URL. Defaults to false, meaning a rule will be used for creating a URL only if its route and parameter names match the given ones. If this property is set true, then the given parameter values must also match the corresponding parameter sub-patterns. Note that setting this property to true will degrade performance.

routeVar property
public string $routeVar;

the GET variable name for route. Defaults to 'r'.

rules property
public array $rules;

the URL rules (pattern=>route).

showScriptName property
public boolean $showScriptName;

whether to show entry script name in the constructed URL. Defaults to true.

urlFormat property
public string getUrlFormat()
public void setUrlFormat(string $value)

Returns the URL format.

urlRuleClass property (available since v1.1.8)
public string $urlRuleClass;

the class name or path alias for the URL rule instances. Defaults to 'CUrlRule'. If you change this to something else, please make sure that the new class must extend from CBaseUrlRule and have the same constructor signature as CUrlRule. It must also be serializable and autoloadable.

urlSuffix property
public string $urlSuffix;

the URL suffix used when in 'path' format. For example, ".html" can be used so that the URL looks like pointing to a static HTML page. Defaults to empty.

useStrictParsing property
public boolean $useStrictParsing;

whether to enable strict URL parsing. This property is only effective when urlFormat is 'path'. If it is set true, then an incoming URL must match one of the URL rules. Otherwise, it will be treated as an invalid request and trigger a 404 HTTP exception. Defaults to false.

Method Details

addRules() method (available since v1.1.4)
public void addRules(array $rules, boolean $append=true)
$rules array new URL rules (pattern=>route).
$append boolean whether the new URL rules should be appended to the existing ones. If false, they will be inserted at the beginning.
Source Code: framework/web/CUrlManager.php#240 (show)
public function addRules($rules,$append=true)
{
    if (
$append)
    {
        foreach(
$rules as $pattern=>$route)
            
$this->_rules[]=$this->createUrlRule($route,$pattern);
    }
    else
    {
        
$rules=array_reverse($rules);
        foreach(
$rules as $pattern=>$route)
            
array_unshift($this->_rules$this->createUrlRule($route,$pattern));
    }
}

Adds new URL rules. In order to make the new rules effective, this method must be called BEFORE CWebApplication::processRequest.

createPathInfo() method
public string createPathInfo(array $params, string $equal, string $ampersand, string $key=NULL)
$params array list of GET parameters
$equal string the separator between name and value
$ampersand string the separator between name-value pairs
$key string this is used internally.
{return} string the created path info
Source Code: framework/web/CUrlManager.php#429 (show)
public function createPathInfo($params,$equal,$ampersand$key=null)
{
    
$pairs = array();
    foreach(
$params as $k => $v)
    {
        if (
$key!==null)
            
$k $key.'['.$k.']';

        if (
is_array($v))
            
$pairs[]=$this->createPathInfo($v,$equal,$ampersand$k);
        else
            
$pairs[]=urlencode($k).$equal.urlencode($v);
    }
    return 
implode($ampersand,$pairs);
}

Creates a path info based on the given parameters.

createUrl() method
public string createUrl(string $route, array $params=array ( ), string $ampersand='&')
$route string the controller and the action (e.g. article/read)
$params array list of GET parameters (name=>value). Both the name and value will be URL-encoded. If the name is '#', the corresponding value will be treated as an anchor and will be appended at the end of the URL.
$ampersand string the token separating name-value pairs in the URL. Defaults to '&'.
{return} string the constructed URL
Source Code: framework/web/CUrlManager.php#283 (show)
public function createUrl($route,$params=array(),$ampersand='&')
{
    unset(
$params[$this->routeVar]);
    foreach(
$params as $i=>$param)
        if(
$param===null)
            
$params[$i]='';

    if(isset(
$params['#']))
    {
        
$anchor='#'.$params['#'];
        unset(
$params['#']);
    }
    else
        
$anchor='';
    
$route=trim($route,'/');
    foreach(
$this->_rules as $i=>$rule)
    {
        if(
is_array($rule))
            
$this->_rules[$i]=$rule=Yii::createComponent($rule);
        if((
$url=$rule->createUrl($this,$route,$params,$ampersand))!==false)
        {
            if(
$rule->hasHostInfo)
                return 
$url==='' '/'.$anchor $url.$anchor;
            else
                return 
$this->getBaseUrl().'/'.$url.$anchor;
        }
    }
    return 
$this->createUrlDefault($route,$params,$ampersand).$anchor;
}

Constructs a URL.

createUrlDefault() method
protected string createUrlDefault(string $route, array $params, string $ampersand)
$route string the controller and the action (e.g. article/read)
$params array list of GET parameters
$ampersand string the token separating name-value pairs in the URL.
{return} string the constructed URL
Source Code: framework/web/CUrlManager.php#320 (show)
protected function createUrlDefault($route,$params,$ampersand)
{
    if(
$this->getUrlFormat()===self::PATH_FORMAT)
    {
        
$url=rtrim($this->getBaseUrl().'/'.$route,'/');
        if(
$this->appendParams)
        {
            
$url=rtrim($url.'/'.$this->createPathInfo($params,'/','/'),'/');
            return 
$route==='' $url $url.$this->urlSuffix;
        }
        else
        {
            if(
$route!=='')
                
$url.=$this->urlSuffix;
            
$query=$this->createPathInfo($params,'=',$ampersand);
            return 
$query==='' $url $url.'?'.$query;
        }
    }
    else
    {
        
$url=$this->getBaseUrl();
        if(!
$this->showScriptName)
            
$url.='/';
        if(
$route!=='')
        {
            
$url.='?'.$this->routeVar.'='.$route;
            if((
$query=$this->createPathInfo($params,'=',$ampersand))!=='')
                
$url.=$ampersand.$query;
        }
        elseif((
$query=$this->createPathInfo($params,'=',$ampersand))!=='')
            
$url.='?'.$query;
        return 
$url;
    }
}

Creates a URL based on default settings.

createUrlRule() method (available since v1.1.0)
protected CUrlRule createUrlRule(mixed $route, string $pattern)
$route mixed the route part of the rule. This could be a string or an array
$pattern string the pattern part of the rule
{return} CUrlRule the URL rule instance
Source Code: framework/web/CUrlManager.php#263 (show)
protected function createUrlRule($route,$pattern)
{
    if(
is_array($route) && isset($route['class']))
        return 
$route;
    else
    {
        
$urlRuleClass=Yii::import($this->urlRuleClass,true);
        return new 
$urlRuleClass($route,$pattern);
    }
}

Creates a URL rule instance. The default implementation returns a CUrlRule object.

getBaseUrl() method
public string getBaseUrl()
{return} string the base URL of the application (the part after host name and before query string). If showScriptName is true, it will include the script name part. Otherwise, it will not, and the ending slashes are stripped off.
Source Code: framework/web/CUrlManager.php#465 (show)
public function getBaseUrl()
{
    if(
$this->_baseUrl!==null)
        return 
$this->_baseUrl;
    else
    {
        if(
$this->showScriptName)
            
$this->_baseUrl=Yii::app()->getRequest()->getScriptUrl();
        else
            
$this->_baseUrl=Yii::app()->getRequest()->getBaseUrl();
        return 
$this->_baseUrl;
    }
}

Returns the base URL of the application.

getUrlFormat() method
public string getUrlFormat()
{return} string the URL format. Defaults to 'path'. Valid values include 'path' and 'get'. Please refer to the guide for more details about the difference between these two formats.
Source Code: framework/web/CUrlManager.php#497 (show)
public function getUrlFormat()
{
    return 
$this->_urlFormat;
}

Returns the URL format.

init() method
public void init()
Source Code: framework/web/CUrlManager.php#203 (show)
public function init()
{
    
parent::init();
    
$this->processRules();
}

Initializes the application component.

parsePathInfo() method
public void parsePathInfo(string $pathInfo)
$pathInfo string path info
Source Code: framework/web/CUrlManager.php#391 (show)
public function parsePathInfo($pathInfo)
{
    if(
$pathInfo==='')
        return;
    
$segs=explode('/',$pathInfo.'/');
    
$n=count($segs);
    for(
$i=0;$i<$n-1;$i+=2)
    {
        
$key=$segs[$i];
        if(
$key==='') continue;
        
$value=$segs[$i+1];
        if((
$pos=strpos($key,'['))!==false && ($m=preg_match_all('/\[(.*?)\]/',$key,$matches))>0)
        {
            
$name=substr($key,0,$pos);
            for(
$j=$m-1;$j>=0;--$j)
            {
                if(
$matches[1][$j]==='')
                    
$value=array($value);
                else
                    
$value=array($matches[1][$j]=>$value);
            }
            if(isset(
$_GET[$name]) && is_array($_GET[$name]))
                
$value=CMap::mergeArray($_GET[$name],$value);
            
$_REQUEST[$name]=$_GET[$name]=$value;
        }
        else
            
$_REQUEST[$key]=$_GET[$key]=$value;
    }
}

Parses a path info into URL segments and saves them to $_GET and $_REQUEST.

parseUrl() method
public string parseUrl(CHttpRequest $request)
$request CHttpRequest the request application component
{return} string the route (controllerID/actionID) and perhaps GET parameters in path format.
Source Code: framework/web/CUrlManager.php#360 (show)
public function parseUrl($request)
{
    if(
$this->getUrlFormat()===self::PATH_FORMAT)
    {
        
$rawPathInfo=$request->getPathInfo();
        
$pathInfo=$this->removeUrlSuffix($rawPathInfo,$this->urlSuffix);
        foreach(
$this->_rules as $i=>$rule)
        {
            if(
is_array($rule))
                
$this->_rules[$i]=$rule=Yii::createComponent($rule);
            if((
$r=$rule->parseUrl($this,$request,$pathInfo,$rawPathInfo))!==false)
                return isset(
$_GET[$this->routeVar]) ? $_GET[$this->routeVar] : $r;
        }
        if(
$this->useStrictParsing)
            throw new 
CHttpException(404,Yii::t('yii','Unable to resolve the request "{route}".',
                array(
'{route}'=>$pathInfo)));
        else
            return 
$pathInfo;
    }
    elseif(isset(
$_GET[$this->routeVar]))
        return 
$_GET[$this->routeVar];
    elseif(isset(
$_POST[$this->routeVar]))
        return 
$_POST[$this->routeVar];
    else
        return 
'';
}

Parses the user request.

processRules() method
protected void processRules()
Source Code: framework/web/CUrlManager.php#212 (show)
protected function processRules()
{
    if(empty(
$this->rules) || $this->getUrlFormat()===self::GET_FORMAT)
        return;
    if(
$this->cacheID!==false && ($cache=Yii::app()->getComponent($this->cacheID))!==null)
    {
        
$hash=md5(serialize($this->rules));
        if((
$data=$cache->get(self::CACHE_KEY))!==false && isset($data[1]) && $data[1]===$hash)
        {
            
$this->_rules=$data[0];
            return;
        }
    }
    foreach(
$this->rules as $pattern=>$route)
        
$this->_rules[]=$this->createUrlRule($route,$pattern);
    if(isset(
$cache))
        
$cache->set(self::CACHE_KEY,array($this->_rules,$hash));
}

Processes the URL rules.

removeUrlSuffix() method
public string removeUrlSuffix(string $pathInfo, string $urlSuffix)
$pathInfo string path info part in the URL
$urlSuffix string the URL suffix to be removed
{return} string path info with URL suffix removed.
Source Code: framework/web/CUrlManager.php#451 (show)
public function removeUrlSuffix($pathInfo,$urlSuffix)
{
    if(
$urlSuffix!=='' && substr($pathInfo,-strlen($urlSuffix))===$urlSuffix)
        return 
substr($pathInfo,0,-strlen($urlSuffix));
    else
        return 
$pathInfo;
}

Removes the URL suffix from path info.

setBaseUrl() method (available since v1.1.1)
public void setBaseUrl(string $value)
$value string the base URL of the application
Source Code: framework/web/CUrlManager.php#487 (show)
public function setBaseUrl($value)
{
    
$this->_baseUrl=$value;
}

Sets the base URL of the application (the part after host name and before query string). This method is provided in case the baseUrl cannot be determined automatically. The ending slashes should be stripped off. And you are also responsible to remove the script name if you set showScriptName to be false.

setUrlFormat() method
public void setUrlFormat(string $value)
$value string the URL format. It must be either 'path' or 'get'.
Source Code: framework/web/CUrlManager.php#506 (show)
public function setUrlFormat($value)
{
    if(
$value===self::PATH_FORMAT || $value===self::GET_FORMAT)
        
$this->_urlFormat=$value;
    else
        throw new 
CException(Yii::t('yii','CUrlManager.UrlFormat must be either "path" or "get".'));
}

Sets the URL format.

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