Yii 1.1: Implementing a Flat User Access System

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This article shows a quick and easy way to implement flat user access control system. Flat means, that user access is controlled by level only, which is solution exactly opposite to complex RBAC access systems.

Intro

This solution is meant only for a very simple applications and does not provide enough flexibility in larger, live or production systems. Therefore, it should be avoided in such solutions.

This article is inspired by "Implementing a User Level Access System" article, written by Antonio Ramirez. Though it provides a bit different approach and in my opinion is easier to implement.

Differences:

  1. User types are stored all together in one array, not in separate constants, which means, that adding or removing user types requires change only in one place, not across all code.

  2. EWebUser class (extended version of CWebUser) stores current user level, which doesn't require to load User model each time, user level variable is requested (but has also some negative side effects -- look below).

Implementation

Modify user table

Start in the same point as in Antonio's article -- i.e. add column level to your table, that stores all your users.

Update UserIdentity

Now, change UserIdentity (usually stored in protected/components). Locate part of the code executed after successful login and above line $this->errorCode = self::ERROR_NONE; add $this->setState('level', $user->level);.

You can access this value via Yii::app()->user->level anywhere in your code.

Antonio's article mentions about declaring additional private $_id; and getId() function in this class:

public function getId()
{
    return $this->_id;
}

This is useful, since CWebUser.id property is set to the value taken form username table of User model by default, where in most situations it is far better to have id column value here. But take this modification as optional -- it is not used in my solution.

EWebUser class

Write a EWebUser class, that will act as extended version of default CWebUser providing some additional functionallity.

In my implementation this class looks like this:

class EWebUser extends CWebUser
{
    private $_userTable = array
    (
        0=>'Normal',
        1=>'Editor',
        8=>'Admin',
        9=>'Superuser'
    );
 
    protected $_model;
 
    function isAdmin()
    {
        //Access this via Yii::app()->user->isAdmin()
 
        return (Yii::app()->user->isGuest) ? FALSE : $this->level == 8;
    }
 
    public function isSuperuser()
    {
        //Access this via Yii::app()->user->isSuperuser()
 
        return (Yii::app()->user->isGuest) ? FALSE : $this->level == 9;
    }
 
    public function canAccess($minimumLevel)
    {
        //Access this via Yii::app()->user->canAccess(9)
 
        return (Yii::app()->user->isGuest) ? FALSE : $this->level >= $minimumLevel;
    }
 
    public function getRoleName()
    {
        //Access this via Yii::app()->user->roleName()
 
        return (Yii::app()->user->isGuest) ? '' : $this->getUserLabel($this->level);
    }
 
    public function getUserLabel($level)
    {
        //Use this for example as a column in CGridView.columns:
        //
        //array('value'=>'Yii::app()->user->getUserLabel($data->level)'),
 
        return $this->_userTable[$level];
    }
 
    public function getUserLevelsList()
    {
        //Access this via Yii::app()->user->getUserLevelList()
 
        return $this->_userTable;
    } 
}

Modify it, whether you like. Write it in protected/components folder.

Since user level is stored directly in EWebUser, there is no need to pool database on each check, if he or she is an admin, super user, what is his or her level etc. But, there is also a side effect. Entire EWebUser data is stored in a session, so any change to user settings (for example level) won't be visible until next login of that user.

Tell Yii to use EWebUser instead of CWebUser by changing components->user part in your config file:

'components'=>array
(
    'user'=>array
    (
        'allowAutoLogin'=>true,
        'class'=>'application.components.EWebUser',
    ),

That would be generally all about implementation of this solution.

Usage

If you implement exactly the same class as mine, you can use it in a various ways.

Directly in the text or code:

echo('Admin: <strong>'.(Yii::app()->user->isAdmin() ? 'yes' : 'now').'</strong> | ');
echo('Level: <strong>'.(Yii::app()->user->level).'</strong> | ');
echo('Role: <strong>'.(Yii::app()->user->roleName).'</strong>');

Checking, if currently logged-in user can access some place:

Yii::app()->user->canAccess(8)

And providing minimum level number user must have to access that part of website.

Changing column in CGridView to display textual role name, instead of level number:

array('value'=>'Yii::app()->user->getUserLabel($data->level)'),

Getting all users levels as one array, to feed elements like listbox or radio button list:

Yii::app()->user->getUserLevelsList()

Finally, checking, if user can access particular action in a controller:

public function accessRules()
{
    return array
    (
        array
        (
            'allow',
            'actions'=>array
            (
                'admin',
                'create',
                'delete',
                'update'
            ),
            'expression'=>'$user->isAdmin()'
        ),
 
        //Deny all users
        array('deny', 'users'=>array('*'))
    )
}

You fill find other examples mentioned in source code as comments.

You can easily extend this solution, by adding own user levels and or other functionality.

Total 1 comment

#14304 report it
MissChile at 2013/08/03 02:18pm
different menues and content?

hi!

Thanks! I'm new in Yii and i was looking for something like this to learn about access level. Bu t I have a question, can I use this method for different menus and content? For instance...I will have a couple of "Admins" and the rest will be "normal" users. If the user is admin, can I redirect him/her to a different menu and content than a normal user? THANKS!!

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